-requires a track line
-perform by both males and female
-Has a starting and finish lane
-the lane are marked to distinguish them
-Any runner who obstructs another runner’s lane or view during the race may be disqualified
-if any athlete gains an unfair advantage by crossing outside of her own lane, they will be disqualified.
A player may not hit the ball 2 times consecutively except when blocking, provided the contacts take place simultaneously. However, a player may make consecutive contacts on the teams first team contact, provided the contacts occur during one action.
It’s a violation for a team to hit the ball 4 times before returning it.
It’s illegal for a player or any object to assist a teammate in playing the ball.
It’s illegal to catch or throw the ball. The ball must rebound from the hit.
•Ball Crossing the Net Outside the Crossing Space:
The ball must cross the net within the crossing space. The ball must cross over the net, between the antennaes and their imaginary extension, and without contacting the ceiling.
Duties of the center Referee in Football.
1. He is in Charge Of the Rules
There are 17 Laws of the Game to be upheld in every game. The laws cover all aspects of the game ranging from the match ball specifications to player equipment safety. It is the referee’s obligation to apply the laws uniformly. He can delay the start of a game until the players conform to the rules.
His responsibility is to ensure the rules are followed without waning the competitiveness of the play. So the referee has to be apprised with all the rules and apply them whenever necessary. For example, in the case where a player commits more than one foul the referee must punish the more serious offense.
2. Maintaining the Safety of Players, Fans and Team Officials
With the help of assistant referees, he or she is required to ensure the safety of players, other officials and spectators. This means that he is entitled to make decisions on safety concerns about the match atmosphere or play. The options at hand are suspending the play, addressing the problem or abandoning the match. Those events interfering with the match are then recorded by the referee.
The referee stops the game if a player is hurt or bleeding to allow for treatment. He ensures the player is cared for either on the playing field or beside the pitch. He must ensure that a bleeding player leaves the playing field and only returns on receiving a confirmation from the assistants that the bleeding has stopped.
For team officials or crowds behaving badly, he can order them to leave the sidelines as a way of maintaining order in the game. On the other hand, he can stop the game if the crowd is endangered with the continuing of the game.
3. The Game Time keeper
The referee starts the game and sanctions corner kicks , goal kicks , offside, handballs, throw-ins , direct kicks and substitutions at an appropriate time. His main responsibility is to run the whole match with minimal interruptions allowed.
4. He Enforces Fair Play
He ensures fair play persists by discouraging unacceptable behavior through disciplinary action. His power lies on a pen and cards, part of the equipment a referee needs in every game. He should not tolerate provocation of other players by team officials and players. This is achieved by sanctioning yellow or
red cards . A proper record of these actions is kept as it is the base of investigations into any misconduct.
5. He Inspects the Playing Area
The area of major concern is the playing field and the immediate surroundings. It should be clear of fragments, most importantly the dangerous ones like glass pieces.
The corner flags must be in place, markings on the field should be unbroken and advertising boards should be over a meter from the playing area. The responsibility of the referee extends to the crowds during the large games. His duty is to confirm that their access to the field is limited.
*FIVE (5) DUTIES OF THE CENTRE REFEREE IN A FOOTBALL GAME:*👇👇👇
•when the whole ball has passed outside the field of play
•which side is entitled to return the ball into the field of play
•when a player may be penalised for an offside offence
•when a substitution is being requested, or assisting the fourth official (if present) in doing the same
•when offences or other infringements of the Laws of the Game have been committed of which the referee does not have an adequate view
i-Sports Competition is a contest held to determine the best athletes and teams and greatest achievements in sports, to improve athletic skills, and to popularize physical culture and sports.
4aii)Aquatics : FINA.
Archery: World Archery Federation (WA)
Athletics : International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF)
Badminton: Badminton World Federation (BWF)
Boxing (amateur): International Boxing Association (AIBA)
-The purpose of the modern Olympic Games is to promote peace and unity within the international community through the medium of sports.
– enhance games as a way to bring political enemies together
-The values underpin the Games as a set of universal principles
-means of youth empowerment
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